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World origin and development of papermaking felts
 Time2013-6-20          Views2046    
When early humans did not use papermaking blankets, paper blankets, with the origin and development of industrialization and paper production began, along with the paper industry to improve production technology and development. The origin and development of blanket is mainly manifested in two aspects: First, the raw materials used paper blankets, and second paper blankets structure and production technology, the two are complementary.
The world's first production began in 900 BC blanket between ancient Greece, but it was felt that people are not used for paper production. The Greeks then the fibers, such as wool, camel hair and other animals made of fluff machining shop blanket, known as "Felt" (Felt). This can be made with felt hats, blankets and soldier's helmet liner, thicker blankets are used as soldiers, armor and ancient nomadic people's clothes and tents.
105 AD, the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty eunuch Cai Lun invented the world's first papermaking, he manufactured using manual techniques craft paper and paper used in modern people very similar can be said that the then revolutionary creation, also known as the Chinese ancient of the "four great inventions" one. This paper technology and methods After about 500 years before the incoming Asia, South Korea and Japan, in about 1000 after the Silk Road into Europe, and in Europe has been rapidly developed and enhanced.
To the 11th century, Europe has begun to use hand-papermaking blankets, blankets for paper production in the cited paper and foil extrusion wet sheet to remove water equipment. Handsheet is to let the fibers uniformly distributed through the fish with a mesh at the bottom of the mold box as to form a wet sheet, and so most of the water after filtering off, and then the mold is pressed to the blanket, then the wet paper sheet transfer from the mold or "primer" to (transfer) blanket. The wet paper sheet and blanket off the excess water squeezed together, the final dry paper.
Paper industry spurred the demand for blankets, special blankets, paper making, so people from the daily life of blanket production methods to achieve enlightenment, using similar methods (techniques) manufactured earlier paper special blanket. Then in popularity in Europe, while the advanced papermaking around the world before the introduction of paper blankets manufacturing technology. From paper and blankets have a close relationship. But the invention of papermaking production and use than the blanket early 1000 years.
Early papermaking felt is made of animal hair (such as wool) tangles made. Wool is featured in the wet state elastic recovery rate is high, there is a very good moisture absorption, and have a good felting (refers to textiles dipped in a solution of alkali or acid, fiber contraction intertwined nature) . By the eighteenth century, the people again woven into blankets for fulling or felting, thus treated blankets strong and soft, fast and easy drainage water, mainly for handmade papermaking.
In 1799, Louis? Robert (Louis Robert) invented the first machine after 30 to 50 years time, when the hand-papermaking has basically disappeared, the first devoted to the woolen mill factory produced a single piece of blanket , then put two machine stitched together to make a ring with a blanket, from the mechanical paper used special blanket was born.
Second half of the 19th century, some companies began producing the annular blanket, but it was felt design is relatively simple. With the printing industry to increasingly demanding high quality paper, printing paper surface properties have become more important, in order to meet this requirement, woven blanket used for knitting yarns and new methods have accordingly studied and improved. Western industrial revolution also contributed to the further development of the paper industry, paper machine to improve the structure of the device, on the blanket also made new demands. 1911, people first used chemical treatment methods to improve the life of blankets, blankets and continuously improve the structure and production technology in order to adapt to the continuous improvement of machine speed.
1950s, developed during World War II people will artificial synthetic fibers (ie fiber) production of raw materials as paper blankets, the ultimate goal is to reduce the use of ordinary wool, thus reducing production costs and improving the blanket performance. Most used are nylon and polyester synthetic fibers, the different characteristics of these two fibers. Nylon with alkali not acid characteristics, while the polyester with acid and not alkali, high temperature characteristics, both of which are resistant to chlorine and anti-microbial properties, the production practices found that using these synthetic fiber blankets are excellent production in pure wool blankets. Wool and synthetic fibers used together, help to improve the strength and durability of blankets, initially, press felts in synthetic fiber content remained at about 30%, which is mainly because these fibers can be used in the conventional method was not felting or shrink it.
During this period the production of paper blankets are traditional woven blankets (Conventional Felt), is the first generation of paper blankets, and its production method is through spinning, weaving blankets, fulling, napping and other processes made. Woven blankets structure is characterized by vertical and horizontal fine yarns, and then use mechanical methods fulling, made the final state of the finished product. Composed mainly of wool fiber, plus a small amount of synthetic fibers.
By 1960, acupuncture flocking blanket (Batt-On-Base Papermaking Felt, abbreviated BOB blankets) emerges, the mechanical method felted felting as possible, the production of synthetic fiber content is also increasing every year. By 1970, synthetic paper machine press felt in the average content of at least 50%, and finally the development of acupuncture for the whole fiber flocking blanket, this blanket has a higher strength and stability. BOB blankets blankets for the paper's second-generation product, its structure is characterized by vertical and horizontal fine yarns of fabric, and then in the fabric on one or both gill net and made of wool blankets, fabric and fleece 100% synthetic fibers.
1968 appears on the bottom wire paper blankets (Batt-On-Mesh Papermaking Felt, referred BOM blanket) is drawing on lined wire presses based on the principle and design. Squeezing the liner web, the wet paper sheet into the press nip, the paper vertically in the water can be from a backing out of the pores of the network, dehydration resistance, after pressing the wet paper sheet may be removed from the more water, and the paper improves dryness. Later, paper mills and Maotan Chang's technical staff and collaborate designed and produced a net, blanket blankets complex combination of acupuncture, this bottom net acupuncture blankets became the third generation of products.
BOM blanket structural features are: Bottom network consists of vertical and horizontal use different weaving techniques made of multifilament fiber materials using longitudinal and transverse adopt plied monofilament or multifilament synthetic materials, and then in the bottom gill nets on both sides and fleece made blankets, fleece bottom nets and are 100% synthetic fibers. Start the use of coarse-mesh polyester monofilament single yarns, nature hard, although treatment is good, long life, but very difficult to mill sets of blankets. So far has been gradually used as the bottom ply nylon monofilament nets, production and use are very convenient, with good elasticity, dehydration fast, specifications and stability characteristics. Today, with the rapid development of the paper industry, 95% of the paper machine by supporting both BOM papermaking felts paper blankets, there are a number of backward production conditions papermaking machine, some special paper machine and the production of special parts of some special paper, still need to use special paper blankets.
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